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Fabrication & Assembly of Hand Pumps


1.  Product Description:  Hand pumps are used for taking out water from the ground using human energy and with the help of a cylinder and piston arrangement.  The cylinder part is in the form of a barrel and the piston part is in the form of a cup washer made of leather.  Normally capable of delivering water up to 1000 liters per hour, the pump works on reciprocating system. A medium size pump operates 20 to 30 stocks per minute.  Hand pumps are used where municipal or piped water is not available or where extra facility for water provision is to be made.  Being very economical and least expensive, a hand pump can lift water from a depth of 24 inches.  For deeper water levels, a long rod is used with the piston system for taking the water out.  Hand pumps can also be used for lifting water for watering vegetables around homes.


2. Rationale:  The drive to provide clean potable water to the rural population is increasing, and the number of rural communities receiving clean water is growing every year.  The most common system of supplying clean water to these communities is by digging wells and installing hand pumps.  In the Amhara Region alone there are tens of thousands of hand pumps installed by government agencies and NGOs.  All these hand pumps are imported, but it is possible to fabricate hand pumps in the Region.  As the program of supplying clean water to the rural population is to expand so is the need for more hand pumps.  The need for more hand pumps will justify the establishment of a hand pump fabricating plant in the Region.


3. Market Potential: Currently there are more than 5000 water points that use hand pumps in the Region Coverage of clean water supply in the Region is not more than 25 percent.  This indicates that the Region has a long way to go to provide clean water for the urban and rural population of the Region.  The market for hand pumps is composed of replacing old hand pumps and installing new hand pumps in the Region.  If we assume that ten percent of the existing hand pumps have to be replaced and 2000 additional hand pumps will be installed throughout the Region, annual demand for hand pumps will be about 2500.  This will make a medium hand pumps fabricating plant a viable venture.  The product could also be exported to other regions of the country.


4. Source of Raw Material: Most of the parts of a hand pump are made from metals- brass or steel.  These will be imported.  One component is made of leather and this will be obtained from domestic leather factories.


5. Production Process & Technology: The main components of a hand pump are: pump body, handle, valve, leather cup, rod, and strainer.  The pump body is the component which works as a cylinder and it is made of brass, copper pipe or steel casting.  The handle is always cast type and made of cast iron.  The valve is circular in shape and is made of brass or copper.  The leather cup is used to work as a piston inside the cylinder.  The rod connects the valve to the end of the handle.  The strainer is made of brass and has holes through which water passes.  Its purpose is to prevent mud and other solid impurities from passing with the water.  After all these components are fabricated/purchased they are assembled to make a hand pump and installed.  Main machinery and equipment include lathes, power hacksaw, spray painting machinery, shaping machine, testing equipment, pedestal grinder, foundry machine.


6. Estimated Investment: For a plant which will produce about 2000 units per year, investment requirement will be: building 150m2 at Birr 1500/m2=Birr   225,000

§         Plant & machinery             Birr   350,000

§         Working capital                 Birr     80,000

            Total                                           655,000      


7. Benefits: supports the rural water supply efforts of the Regional government and NGOs, saves foreign exchange and regional financial resources, self- sufficiency in this important product new technology and skill.


8.  Location: Combolcha.