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Animal Glue Making Plant

1.         Product Description:  Glue can be obtained either from plant or animal sources.  Glues obtained from boiling animal hides or bones are called animal glues.  Animal glue is insoluble in cold water but absorbs 6 to 8 times its weight of water at temperatures below its congealing point.  Glues are mainly used as adhesive materials whereas gelatin is valued mainly according to its stiffing jelly and emulsifying properties.  It is also used as one ingredient for colloidals, in sizing and coating.


2.         Rationale: One of the main inputs for producing glue is animal bone.  This input can be obtained from abbiatores, meat processing factories and from other traditional sources where livestock are killed for consumption.  The natural death of cattle is also a source of animal bone.  With all these sources, however, no attempt has been made to produce glue on a commercial scale.  One exception is the unit within the Addis Ababa Abbiatores which produces a modest quantity of glue for domestic consumption.  The supply of animal bones outside Addis Ababa is not used for any economic purpose; it is simply thrown away.  Since animal glue is used by many types of industries such as shoe making, wood working, packaging, etc, the product has market as well as raw material.


3.         Market Potential: The number of industries which use animal glue is increasing.  The leather shoes industry alone consumes a large quantity of animal glue every year.  So is the wood working industry.  Practically all the animal glue requirement of the country is met by imports.  Even in the absence of quantified figure as to the amount of animal glue consumed in the country annually, one could safely assume that there is a market for the product which can sustain the viability of a small animal glue making plant.  This plant can be established in the Amhara Region which contains more than 28 percent of the livestock resources of the country.


4.         Source of Raw Material: Cattle bone can be collected from the slaughter houses of the Region as well as from other traditional sources.


5.         Process and Technology: The main processing stages are preparation of stock, extraction or boiling, treatment and jellying and drying the solution.  Crushed bones are first treated with lime to dissolve and remove unwanted materials.  Lime reduces the bulk of the fat inactive by saponification.  After the liming process, the alkali and other chemicals are completely removed by washing with pure water.  Sometimes weak acid is added to neutralize the lime and reduce the washing period.  For boiling the mass of the glue, if steam is not available, double jacketed pans which utilize cheap minerals oil or caster oil can serve the purpose.  Glue solution is now steam evaporated by using multiple effect evaporators under vacuum and low temperature.  Machinery needed include mini boiler, storage and mixing tanks, boiling tanks, evaporator, driers, paddles for liming, vacuum pump and motors, disintegrator, weighing machine, tools and testing instruments.


6.         Estimated Investment:  For a plant which can produce 100 kgs of animal glue per day, the estimated investment will be:

§  Building/Shade 150 m2 at Birr 2000/m2              = Birr 300,000

§  Machinery                                                       = Birr 150,000

§  Working Capital                                               = Birr 100,000



7.         Benefits: Saves foreign exchange and financial resource of the Region, utilizes and resource (animal bone) which is being wasted, has the potential of bringing financial resources to the Region, introduces new skills and technology, and promotes self-sufficiency.